Vocabulary

TERMINOLOGY

CLAY TERMS AND HANDBUILDING TECHNIQUES 

1. Wedging = THE PROCESS OF KNEADING THE CLAY TO REMOVE AIR POCKETS AND MAKE THE CLAY BODY HOMOGENEOUS
2. Greenware = UNFIRED CLAY
3. Leatherhard = HARDENING CLAY THAT MAY STILL BE CARVED OR JOINED TO OTHER PIECES
4. Bonedry = STAGE OF DRYING WHEN MOISTURE IN THE CLAY HAS EVAPORATED THE CLAY BODY WILL BE DRY AND DUSTY
5. Bisqueware = CERAMIC WARE THAT HAS GONE THROUGH A FIRING PROCESS AT A RELATIVELY LOW TEMPERATURE AND IS STILL IN ITS POROUS STATE
6. Bisque Firing = THE FIRST FIRING OF A CLAY OBJECT
7. Kiln = A STRUCTURE BUILT TO FIRE CLAY AT A HIGH TEMPERATURE
8. Handbuilding = MAKING CLAY FORMS BY A NON-MECHANICAL PROCESS, SUCH AS PINCHING, COILING AND SLAB BUILDING
9. Coiling = ROLLS OF CLAY ATTACHED TOGETHER TO FORM POTTERY
10. Slab = HAND-BUILDING TECHNIQUE THAT INVOLVES SHAPING CLAY INTO A BROAD, FLAT, THICK PIECE
11. Pinching = INVOLVES SQUEEZING THE CLAY, USUALLY BETWEEN THE FINGERS AND THUMB
12. Scoring = SCRATCHING THE EDGES OF CLAY BEFORE JOINING THEM TOGETHER
13. Slurry = A FLUID SUSPENSION OF CLAY AND WATER USED IN JOINING CLAY PIECES
14. Slip = DIFFERS FROM SLURRY IN THAT IT IS GENERALLY THINNER. IT HAS A SMOOTH, THICK, CONSISTENCY AND IS USED FOR PAINTING AND DECORATING
15. Sculpture in the RoundOBJECTS ARE PRESENTED IN COMPLETE THREE-DIMENSIONAL FORM AND ARE NOT SEEN FROM ONE SIDE
16. Additive Techniques = ATTACHING CUT, COILED OR PINCHED PIECES TO CREATE JOINED THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES OR HIGH RELIEVE
17. Reductive Techniques = ALSO KNOWN AS LOW RELIEVE, CARVING, GOUGING, CUTTING, ETCHING
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GESTALT –Unified whole. 1920’s German psychologists developed a mode of organizing visual elements into groups or unified wholes. How the eye organizes what it sees.

Design Principles VocabularyCOMPOSITIONAL ELEMENTS

1.    Scale/Mass/Extension= INCREASING AND DECREASING SIZE. GROWING, STRETCHING, CROPPING ARE EXAMPLES.
2.    Number/Frequency/Density=CROWDED, HEAVY, VARYING THE THICKNESS, SPACING, AND NUMBER OF MARKS.
3.    Positive/Negative= FIGURE GROUND AND CONTRAST. BLACK ON WHITE OR WHITE ON BLACK.
4.    Orientation/Direction=MARKS THAT INDICATE MOVEMENT AND CHANGE IN DIRECTION, ROTATION, REFLECTION AND REVERSION
5.    Alteration=AT LEAST TWO IMAGES THAT CREATE DIFFERENT VARIABLES and COMPOSITIONAL ELEMENTS
6.    Sequence=ONE THING AFTER ANOTHER IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER, CONTINUITY
7.    Rhythm=MOVEMENT BY REPETITION. REPEATED POSITIVE SHAPES SEPARATED BY NEGATIVE SPACES. IT CAN BE REGULAR AND HAVE VARIOUS SPEEDS OF SLOW AND FAST.
8.    Repetition=ELEMENTS ARE REPEATED IN PATTERN OR SYSTEM.
9.    Proportion=COMPARISON IN DIMENSION BETWEEN TWO OR MORE ELEMENTS OR RATIO IN A COMPOSITION
10.  Axis=APPLIED LINE OR DIRECT THAT RUNS FROM BOTTOM TO TOP AND TRAVELS THROUGH THE MIDDLE FOR BALANCE AND MOVEMENT. NON- STATIC.
11.  Focal point=WHAT THE EYE IS FIRST DRAWN TO ON A PICTURE PLANE. 
12.  Contrast=OPPOSITION
13.  Balance=OPPOSITES ARE EQUAL IN STRENGTH AND WEIGHT.
14.  Dominance=ELEMENTS HAVE A STRONGER PRESENCE THAN OTHER PARTS. CAN POSSESS CONTRAST, OPPOSITION, LARGER SCALE, COLOR DIFFERENCE, WEIGHT IMBALANCE.
15.  Symmetry=USE OF IDENTICAL OR SIMILAR ELEMENTS TO MIRROR EACH OTHER
16.  Proximity= DEGREE OF DISTANCE.
17.  Continuance= GROUPING IN A CONTINUING DIRECTION OFTEN SUGGESTING MOVEMENT.
18.  Closure=GROUPING INTO FORMS OR SHAPES. SIMILARITY, PROXIMITY, AND CONTINUANCE.